Desired Outcomes of Education

What are the Desired Outcomes of Education?

The Desired Outcomes of Education (DOE)1 are attributes that educators aspire for every Singaporean to have by the completion of his formal education. These outcomes establish a common purpose for educators, drive our policies and programmes, and allow us to determine how well our education system is doing.

The person who is schooled in the Singapore Education system embodies the Desired Outcomes of Education. He has a good sense of self-awareness, a sound moral compass, and the necessary skills and knowledge to take on challenges of the future. He is responsible to his family, community and nation. He appreciates the beauty of the world around him, possesses a healthy mind and body, and has a zest for life. In sum, he is

  • a confident person who has a strong sense of right and wrong, is adaptable and resilient, knows himself, is discerning in judgment, thinks independently and critically, and communicates effectively;
  • a self-directed learner who takes responsibility for his own learning, who questions, reflects and perseveres in the pursuit of learning;
  • an active contributor who is able to work effectively in teams, exercises initiative, takes calculated risks, is innovative and strives for excellence; and,
  • a concerned citizen who is rooted to Singapore, has a strong civic consciousness, is informed, and takes an active role in bettering the lives of others around him.

The Key Stage Outcomes

The DOE are translated into a set of developmental outcomes for each key stage of our education system. The Key Stage Outcomes spell out what the Education Service aspires to develop in our students through Primary, Secondary, and Post-Secondary2 education. Each educational level builds upon the previous stages and lays the foundation for subsequent ones. For example, primary school students start by learning to know and love Singapore. In doing so, their belief in Singapore will be strengthened and they will understand what matters to Singapore by secondary school. They will grow to be proud of Singapore and understand our country within the global context at the post-secondary level.

There are eight outcomes at each key stage. Taken together, the Key Stage Outcomes make explicit what we aspire to develop in our young so as to lay the strong foundations for them to thrive and achieve success in life as contributing members of society.

The Key Stage Outcomes of Education

At the end of Primary school, pupils should: At the end of Secondary school, students should: At the end of Post-Secondary education, students should:
be able to distinguish right from wrong have moral integrity have moral courage to stand up for what is right
know their strengths and areas for growth believe in their abilities and be able to adapt to change be resilient in the face of adversity
be able to cooperate, share and care for others be able to work in teams and show empathy for others be able to collaborate across cultures and be socially responsible
have a lively curiosity about things be creative and have an inquiring mind be innovative and enterprising
be able to think for and express themselves confidently be able to appreciate diverse views and communicate effectively be able to think critically and communicate persuasively
take pride in their work take responsibility for their own learning be purposeful in pursuit of excellence
have healthy habits and an awareness of the arts enjoy physical activities and appreciate the arts pursue a healthy lifestyle and have an appreciation for aesthetics
know and love Singapore believe in Singapore and understand what matters to Singapore be proud to be Singaporeans and understand Singapore in relation to the world

Download the PDF version of the Desired Outcomes of Education (16kb .pdf).


  1. The original DOE were first formulated in 1997. This revision was published online on the 1st of December 2009.
  2. Post-Secondary includes the Pre-university Institutions, Institute of Technical Education (ITE) and the Polytechnics.